Poem: Hope is a Thing With Feathers by Emily Dickinson (Truly love it)

Poem is one of literary writing reincarnated by an inspiration, emotion, or feeling either happiness or sorrow of an author himself. The poem is possessed of several elements which the one of them is meaning. The meaning constitutes a message the author desires to be conveyed; in order for the poem to be more beautiful and be more exciting. Inside of poem “Hope is A Thing with Feathers” by Emily Dickinson, present the deep meaning of each word the author has elected on each stanza.

First of all, at the beginning stanza; the author desire to convey that there are feathers inside of the hope itself (“Hope is a thing with feathers”). Feathers the author means is a mildness of the hope. As well known that the hope renown as a pure one, because it is still a hope only, not reality. Thus, it has not yet blotted by our act which the way is able to be true or false to obtain the hope itself. The hope is in far deep of our heart (“That perches in the soul”), because it is the only one we highly wish to reach. As human being, we are accompanied by the continuous hope until the end of life (“And never stops at all”); because, it is our property to confront this life. We are able to imagine if there is no hope at all. What do we want to be?

Secondly, the author effort to provide the stanza as attractive as possible. The following stanza emphasizes again that the hope is the most beautiful one (“And sweetest….”), because it is our precious thing to confront this life (as the previous state). The core meaning of this stanza is that the more beautiful our hope, the greater obstacle we confront (“And sweetest, in the gale, is heard”); and we have to pass it however the great. Usually, our  effort to confront the obstacle produce the praise as sometimes, yet also an indignity (“That could abash the little bird”). However, we must endeavor to keep our peaceful heart (“That keeps so many warm”). Surprisingly, the author shows an attractive phrase again. Why did the author choose the phrase “little bird”? Actually, the author made himself to be same as the little bird. The word “little” explains that, as a human, we just have a little power in this life. We have no reason to act recklessly and be arrogant. However great our hope, it must be passed by beautiful way. Moreover, the word “bird” symbolizes a cheerfulness necessary to be had by everybody. In order to be like the birds which always sing everyday. Perhaps, the author believes this wise sentence, “do this life as what you think !”. Indirectly, the sentence invites us to keep our cheerfulness however strong the obstacle, in order to reach a happy life.

Finally, the author covered his poem by the restress stanza of the previous stanza. The author reexplains that the obstacle must present in every wishes (“I’ve heard it in the chilliest land/And on the strangest sea”). In contrast, we should not do the bad things to against it (“Yet, never, in extremity”), except do how to solve it peacefully.

In conclusion,, we are able to obtain the meaningful thing here. That it is important to have a hope in this life, because no life without hope (as previous state). If we hope something, we must really establish the effort to reach it although many obstacles at front of us, and along with an understanding of our powerless as human being (in front of God). We should not care about anything blocking us. We have to pass it by the sweet way for the beautiful life.

Competency Model of English Subject

First of all, there is Discourse Competence. Discourse Competence is a model of competence requiring students to be able to communicate in either orally or scribal one; because whatever meaning that have obtained by students is always related to the cultural context and the situation covering it. Discourse Competence is able to be activated by participating in a conversation, reading, and writing. By doing that activation, it is equal to do a set of strategy and procedure to realize the values in elements of language, grammar, and the signs of pragmatic in interpreting and providing the expression of meaning. In contrast, this competence never be realized if there are no the supporting competencies like Linguistic Competence, Speech Action Competence or Rhetoric Competence that are including to Actional Competence, Sociocultural Competence, and Strategic Competence.

Linguistic Competence relates to how the students are enabled to be able to use English effectively in different situations and settings by using authentic, appropriate, and correct linguistic form. Speech Action Competence was more focused on the purpose enabling students to speak English correctly and interestingly, in order for the native or non-native speakers to understand and to be able to obtain the core of the students’ speech. The Sociocultural Competence has more than one purposes of its existence in the Discourse Competence. One of them is enable students to be able to use English correctly not only in educational context (formal) but also in social and cultural context (informal). Another purpose is to create students who are valuable for their social and culture. It means that students must have an understanding about the condition of their social and culture. They are also have to be able to make their social and culture be adapted with this new ere (globalization era), wherein English is very important to survive in every competitions of world.

It is closely equal to the previous competencies, the Strategic Competence having made to create the clever students who are able to place English at the proper context. It means students have to have strategy or procedure in learning English in this era of globalization. This competency includes how the students obtain knowledge about English. For instance, how the students manage their time to study at home, to solve any problem they face when learning English, and to maintain their good score at English. The proponents of this state define the competence be more wide. These competencies are redrawn be sub-six components that are able to be used as the orientation for language learning.

The stated set of sub-six components are highly helping in identifying whatever that need to be overcome or be covered by an educational program of language as declarative knowledge, and the knowledge about the details of language. The pedagogical implication of this is that the formulation of competency and the result of learning English is need to be underlaid to those several components, in order to assure that the activity of education that is done toward the obtaining of one of the main competencies, that is Discourse Competence. Because of that, the result of learning in this curriculum is formed based on the five competencies in the models of this competency.

Then, each results of learning are explored based on the list of sub-component and the other relevant considerations. It is important to be noted that the set of components meaning the those lists are not the Discourse Competence representation; because the Discourse Competence is more refer to the strategy or the procedure to mobilize the whole declarative knowledge in the context of the real communication, in order to create he meaning that is suitable with the context of the communication. This ability is usually called the procedural knowledge, where the knowledge is able to be obtained structurally. This is meant that the language teaching is not able to be divided into the groups of competencies like linguistic, actional, sociocultural, strategic, and discourse, but it is directed to the acquisition of Discourse Competence by seeing toward the group of competency as the monitor tools that help the awareness about the existence of those components.

In conclusion, all of those competencies is important to be mastered; because every competency is interrelated each other. If students miss one of those competencies, it will be the bad affect in the whole competencies.

As I like poem

Metaphors, for example : “Love is blind”, “Winds of change”, “You are as cold as Ice”, “Light of my life”, “Rolling in dough”, “Let the Cat out of the bag”, “Fight like a tiger”, “the sweet smell of success”, “Bite the bullet”, “the world is a stage”, etc..

Metaphors, expand (memperluas) the sense and clarifies  meaning.

Metaphors, give:

  • Symbolism
  • Concise language

Ringkas

  • Makes language livelier (Lebih lincah)
  • Without stating obvious
  • Give new meaning of words

Figurative language

  • Metaphor: direct metaphor=> comparing two unlike objects or ideas (ex, “my love is a rose”), implied/indirect metaphor=> an indirect comparison between two unlike things (ex, my love has a rosy bloom).
  • Simile: a comparison using “like or “as” (ex, life is like a box of chocolates)
  • Personification: the die thing do something like the man

Sound techniques

  • Rhyme scheme: pola sajak (ex, abab/abcc, etc.)
  • Alliteration: bunyi sama di awal kata (pengulangan)=> ex, “she sells seashells at the sea shore”
  • Onomatopoeia: pembentukan kata yg meniru bunyi atau suara=> ex, tik tik tik (sound of the rain) in a potry, for example.

Stanza

Stanza in Indonesian is “Bait”.

It consist of:

  • Couplet: A stanza consisting of two lines that rhyme
  • Quatrain: A stanza consisting of four lines

Imagery

  • Representation of the five senses (sight, taste, touch, sound, smell)
  • Creates mental images about a poem’s subject
  • “continuous as the stars that shine and twinkle on the milky way”

Symbol

A word that has its own meaning and represent another word, object or idea

Ex., the daffodils represent happiness, and pleasure to the author.

Assonance

The repetition of a vowel sound in a line (ex., which is the bliss of solitude)

Consonance

The repeated of consonant sound can be anywhere in the words

Refrain

The repetition of one or more phrase or line at certain intervals, usually at the end of each stanza. Similar to the chorus in a song.

Repetition

A word or a phrase repeated within a line or stanza

Ex., “gazed and gazed”

Forms of Poetry

  • Free verse poetry=> doesn’t have rhyme
  • Blank verse poetry=> written in lines of iambic pentameter, but doesn’t use end rhyme.

Hyperbole

Exaggeration (pernyataan yg lebay) often use for emphasis (tekanan)

Litotes

Understatement- often it is ironic (mengecilkan suatu persoalan atau mengejek)

Idiom

An expression where the literal meaning of the word is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. (ex., It is raining cats and dogs)

Allusion

Insinuation (sindiran)

Simple Essay of Homonymy and Polysemy

 

Homonymy and Polysemy

            What happened if we determine the meaning of a word by looking at the context of the word? We often get a confusion of doing this case which is one of the common problems in English. Has two or more same words with different meaning and has a word with two or more meanings is one of uniqueness in English. However, it can be a problem if we are confused in determining the meaning of word as previous state. In English, these cases will be discussed in homonymy and polysemy theory.

We begin with homonymy. Dash (2010) reveals that homonymy is such words often exhibit identical spelling or orthographic forms but are different in meaning. Another expert also reveals that homonymy (from Gr. “homos” means “the same”, “omona” means “name”) are the words, different in meaning and either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in spelling or sound. There are three most widely accepted classification of homonymy:

  1. Homonyms proper (or perfect homonym)
  2. Homophone
  3. Homograph
  • Homonyms proper are words that have identical spelling and pronunciation. For instance:
    • Word “right” carrying the meaning of correctness, and word “right” carrying the meaning of direction.
    • Word “bay” as verb carrying the meaning of “to bark”, and word “bay” as noun carrying the meaning of a part of the sea or the lake filling wide mouth opening of the land, or the European laurel.
    • Word “ball” carrying the meaning of a round object used in game, and word “ball” carrying the meaning of a gathering of people for dancing.

 

It needs to be emphasized that homonyms are the distinct words, not a word that has the different meaning.

  • Homophones are words that have the same sound but have difference in meaning. For instance:
    • Word “arms” as the part of human body and word “alms” as a gift of money, clothes, or food to poor people.
    • Word “to” carrying the meaning of toward, word “too” carrying the meaning of also, and word “two” as number
    • Word “mare” carrying the meaning of an adult female house and word “mayor” carrying the meaning of elect person who govern or lead a city or town in certain period.
    • Homographs are words that have difference in sound and in meaning but accidentally have identical spelling. For instance:
      • Word “subject” carrying the meaning of a topic, or under same authority or control, or the noun in a sentence about which something is said in the predicate.
      • Word “tear” carrying the meaning of a drop of water from the eyes, or to rip.
      • Word ”project” carrying the meaning of a plan or proposal, or to throw or hurl forward, or to cause a shadow or image to fall upon a surface.

It is different from homonymy, polysemy is the phenomenon when a single word has two or more meanings, no matter how meaning is defined in a given approach (Petho, 1999). Fellbaum (2000:52) also reveals his view that, in polysemy a particular word exhibits variations of its sense depending on the context of its use. It is then able to make confusion again if we should take a look at the context. Here are several criteria of polysemy according to Lyons (1977:550):

  • The relation between the polysemic senses of a word must be clear derived sense
  • The polysemic senses of a word must be shown to be etymologically related to the same original source word
  • Lexical polysemy is a sense relation within a particular syntactic category. i.e., lexical polysemy does not cut across syntactic word class boundaries.

For instance, the word “school” in the following expressions belongs to the syntactic category of noun. Even though it has slightly different senses in each expression, all of these expressions have the same etymological history.

a)      The school is in Murray Street (school=building)

b)      The boys love their school (institution)

c)      The school will visit the old age home (the pupils)

d)     Working abroad is a hard school for anyone (opportunity for learning)

e)      The Prague School of Linguistic (group of scholars propagating a particular theoretical approach)

A problem now is that, many homonymous words occur polysemous in a text. To make us easier to determine whether it is homonymous or is polysemous, we are able to use several parameters below:

  1. Polysemy is the existence of more than one semantic specification for the same lexical item. Homonymy, on the contrary, is the existence of more than one morphological specification sharing the same phonological and/or orthographic representation (Leech, 1974: 230).
  2. While polysemous words have one and only one etymological ancestry, homonyms are not etymologically related (Yule, 1985: 96).
  3. The best solution to the puzzle of polysemy and homonymy is to seek a core of meaning, and the homonymous items sharing the same core meaning should be undoubtedly marked as polysemous (Todd, 1987: 80)
  4. A word that is polysemic will have a variety of synonyms each corresponding to one of its meanings. Moreover, it will also have a set of antonyms. It is tempting to say that where the antonym is the same, there is polysemy, and the differences of antonyms will refer to homonymy (Palmer, 1995: 107).
  5. The ambiguity in homonymous forms is not likely to be sustained in a longer discourse, which may not be true to polysemous words (Kreidler, 1998: 55).
  6. In polysemy, words are semantically related and sense variations typically originate from metaphoric usage; in homonymy, words are different in meanings which are not generally related (Ravin and Leacock, 2000: 2).
  7. The context of homonyms consists of quite different vocabularies, whereas the contexts of polysemes may be quite similar (Ravin and Leacock, 2000: 26)
  8. In case of polysemy, words are registered in a dictionary as single entry and their multiple meanings are normally numbered serially with examples of usage in different contexts, while in homonymy, words have dictionarial entry as separate listemes. Homonyms have separate entries in regular dictionary (Allan, 2001: 42-43).

In short, we really need to differentiate between homonymy and polysemy. It is able to do by the presented discussion in this essay: definition of homonymy as well as polysemy, examples of homonymy and polysemy, and parameters to determine whether it (a word) belongs to homonymy or polysemy.

 

 

References

ü  http://examples.yourdictionary.com

ü  http://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in

ü  http://ebookbrowse.com

ü  http://www.lessonsnips.com

ü  http://major-theoretic.narod.ru

This is a short about what my answer of final test assignment of Drama Class is; namely drama “Trifles” by Susan Glaspell (American: 1882-1948). Happy reading!!! ~,~


1.  
Brief description of setting

According to Watermen, this play is set during the latter half of the 19th century; wherein male-dominated society is behaved at that time. It is seen from the play that men master all aspects of life as if women’s desire is not appreciated. The central domain of this play is in the kitchen; that is in abandoned farmhouse of John Wright.

2.   The characterization of Mr. Henderson

Mr. Henderson, the county attorney, is a young man. He is actually professional in manner; yet, he often belittles women’s interest. It is seen on the play: he deems that the crucial cause of Mr. Wright’s dead is Mrs. Wright’s lack of homemaking skill.

3.   Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale difference from each other

Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale are of course different from each other (in this case, the three men) by looking at their perception about woman’s existence. Once again, this play is setting when there is a male-dominated-society. Thus, men really belittle women’s ability; whereas, if we take a look at the play, the men are pompously looking for the forensic evidence of embellishment while women just look around the kitchen to look for the detail evidence. It turns that women are far more observant than men. For that reason, only women knowing who the murder and what the real cause is.

4.   The meaning of “the women’s eyes meet for an instant” and exchange of glances

“The women’s eyes meet for an instant”, this bit of action says that Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale have the same thought at that time. They look at each other is just reflex action because of the same thought itself. It is caused by the existence of Mr. Henderson’s utterance that he begins to find the cause of embellishment. The exchange of glances means that horribility is as the truth dawned upon Mrs. Peters’ and Mrs. Hale’s faces, closing the short with a gloomy air.

5.   Whether this play is immoral or not?

Explicitly, I mean if we take a look at the play process, this play is probably immoral; because, it highly belittles women. No appreciation for women there. However, if we are able to pick up the messages of the story, we are able to make it as a lesson for gender equality and it will be nice play.